Hitting is fundamental to playing softball & many factors play a role in how effective an athlete is at the plate. Some of the most important factors include Pre-Impact Speed, Exit Speed, Launch Angle, & Collision Efficiency.

**Pre-Impact Speed:** Measures the velocity of the bat barrel in miles per hour (MPH) from the start of the swing to contact with the ball bat impacts the ball. This measure is directly correlated to a player's strength, technique, & weight of the bat.

TESTING STANDARDS

**Exit Speed:** The most important factor for finding an effective hitter. Measures the velocity of the ball in miles per hour (MPH) after it has been hit by the bat; this can also be seen as the power of the ball coming off a bat. For every 1 MPH increase on a well hit line drive, the ball will travel an additional 3.5 feet.

TESTING STANDARDS

**Launch Angle:** Launch angle measures the vertical direction of the ball after being hit by the bat. Positive numbers indicate an upward ball flight and negative numbers indicate a ball driven into the ground. Exit speed becomes exponentially more powerful when paired with launch angle. These two metrics provide a very clear indication of how far the ball will travel after it is hit. A ball hit between 25 ° - 35° falls within the “sweet spot”, the range of most successful launch angles for optimal energy transfer.

**Collision Efficiency:** Defines a bat's ability to turn an incoming pitch into a solid hit. On average, hitting a ball off a tee (zero pitch speed) should result in a ball exit speed 10% greater than the bat’s pre-impact speed. This can vary depending on the amount of energy transferred from the bat to the ball. Negative exit to pre-impact speeds typically indicate the bat is decelerating at impact which is not optimal for hitting with power.